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Friday, September 19, 2014

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UCI researchers create compound that boosts anti-inflammatory fat levels

Discovery could lead to new immune-response drugs for allergies, illnesses and injuries

— Irvine, Calif., November 16, 2009 —

UC Irvine pharmacology researchers have discovered a way to boost levels of a natural body fat that helps decrease inflammation, pointing to possible new treatments for allergies, illnesses and injuries related to the immune system.

For decades, it has been known that this fat, called palmitoylethanolamide (PEA), is a potent anti-inflammatory substance that reduces both allergic symptoms and occurrences of rheumatic fever, but researchers understood little about how PEA works.

In a study appearing online in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, Daniele Piomelli, the Louise Turner Arnold Chair in Neurosciences at UCI, and colleagues found that levels of PEA are tightly regulated by immune system cells. In turn, PEA helps control the activity of these cells, which are called into action to fight infection, disease and injury in the body.

In addition, they found that PEA - also present in foods like eggs and peanuts - is deactivated by a protein called N-acylethanolamine-hydrolyzing acid amidase, which is an enzyme that breaks down molecules controlling cell inflammation.

Using a combination of molecular modeling and chemical library screening, the researchers created a novel compound that blocks the action of this protein.

When given to rodents, the compound increased the levels of PEA in their immune cells and reduced the amount of inflammation elicited by an inflammatory substance. Furthermore, when administered to the spinal cords of mice after spinal cord injury, the compound decreased inflammation associated with the trauma and improved the recovery of motor function.

"These findings are very exciting for the field of medicine because most drugs for inflammatory conditions are effective in only a portion of the population and have serious side effects," Piomelli says. "This compound shows wide-scale promise."

He adds that the PEA-boosting compound is a prime candidate for development into a range of immune-response drugs. This possibility will be explored through a research collaboration between UCI and the Italian Institute of Technology in Genoa.

About the University of California, Irvine: Founded in 1965, UCI is a top-ranked university dedicated to research, scholarship and community service. Led by Chancellor Michael Drake since 2005, UCI is among the fastest-growing University of California campuses, with more than 27,000 undergraduate and graduate students, 1,100 faculty and 9,200 staff. The top employer in dynamic Orange County, UCI contributes an annual economic impact of $4.2 billion. For more UCI news, visit www.today.uci.edu.

News Radio: UCI maintains on campus an ISDN line for conducting interviews with its faculty and experts. Use of this line is available for a fee to radio news programs/stations that wish to interview UCI faculty and experts. Use of the ISDN line is subject to availability and approval by the university.

Daniele Piomelli
Daniele Piomelli believes the finding can lead to new drugs to treat inflammation.
Photo by UC Irvine

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